Sujit Choudhry on self-enforcement of the constitution

In December 2017, the former United States attorney general, Eric Holder took to Twitter and gave his views on the issue of termination of the white house special counsel. In his remarks, he referred to the move by the government as a red line and suggested that citizens take to the streets to demonstrate what he refers to as a move to cripple the office of the special counsel.

In response to these remarks, the constitutional law and politics expert, Sujit Choudhry published a book chapter under the title ‘Democracies in Crisis.’

Sujit Choudhry’s views

Sujit points out that Holder’s suggested that the public would determine whether the termination is right or wrong if it is an abuse of power or not and that the way the citizens would react would determine what path the government decides to take regarding the matter. He refers to this concept as self-enforcement of the constitution. Under this concept, the appropriateness of the behavior of a public figure is determined by a focus on the constitutional rules. The decision as to whether or not one has violated these rules does not necessarily have to be determined by a court of law. Instead, officials who see the flaws in their fellows mobilize the people of the nation to take to the streets and demand change.

Sujit uses the book chapter to expound on democratic affairs and the currents political situation in the US and the world. He goes further and points out that there has been a recent deterioration in democracy in many nations and that many governments are beginning to exercise autocracy.

About Sujit Choudhry

Sujit is a 48-year-old native of New Delhi, India. He attended the Toronto Schools for his high school education and later on the Universities of Oxford, Toronto and the Law School o Harvard where he studied law.

Career journey

Sujit began as a Clerk of Law to the Canadian Supreme Court Chief Justice, Antonio Lamer. He worked as a graduate fellow and visiting researcher at the University of Harvard. Immediately after that, he became an assistant to a professor in the Toronto University and eventually in 2004 landed the position of Associate Dean and Scholl Chairperson at the same university. Since then he has lectured in several universities and gained international recognition as an expert in constitutional affairs and also taken part in the structuring of the constitution for several nations.

Connect, visit


Is Democracy Leaving Us?

This may sound a little alarmist, but others say that it is the conversation that we need to be having right now. That is one of concern about what is happening to our democracy. Sujit Choudhry is exactly the kind of person that you would want to speak with if you were interested in this topic.  More on

The recent publication of an article by Sujit Choudhry in which he talks about a recent tweet by Eric Holder talking about the possibility of Donald Trump firing Special Council Robert Muller would be crossing a “red line”. That is a moment when the constitution and the country by default would be in serious danger suggests Choudhry.

Sujit Choudhry says that Holder leaves it up to the American people to decide if their elected officials have indeed crossed the red line. He goes on to make note of the fact that Holder seems to believe that constitutional democracies have a certain point when they might break.

Choudhry goes on to talk about how the concept of red lines is not a new one in American democracy. He discusses many ways in which other red lines may be crossed that could cause a constitutional crisis. For example, if an elected official who would normally be held to term limits decided to try to change the laws at the last minute to allow him or herself to have an extended or even unlimited amount of terms. This in theory could even be approved by the people, but the idea itself reeks of being undemocratic.

More to read on

There is just something about all of this that gets under people’s skin. They do not like to think about any one person having so much power that they are literally able to dictate how the rest of the country operates. It is something that democracies are not founded on, and Choudhry does point out many ways in which our very own democracy could suffer if we allowed some of these lines to be crossed. It will be interesting to see how and if the current administration elects to test the rules that have been laid out for all of American history.  For additional reading, check

Connect:  LinkedIn

End Citizens United In The War Against “Big Money” In Politics

The End Citizens United is a democratic PAC group. It is also a non-profit organization. It is aimed at fighting or slightly reducing the amount of effect financial support has on the state politics. The group is chaired by Tiffany Muller. They have their headquarters in Washington, DC. Despite being located in DC, the organization has participative members spread across the United States.

The End Citizens United is this year aiming at releasing the names of politicians whom according to them are the worst. They are using the name “Big money 20” to refer to the list of names of these politicians. These politicians have fallen into this list because they have put to priority their personal needs rather than those of their electors.

In support of the re-elections, the liberal PAC group, End Citizens United intends to come up with and utilize a total amount of $35 million. This is higher than the amount they used in the 2016 elections.

Like End Citizens United on Facebook

The End Citizens United has come up with an initiative to encourage as many candidates to decline financial supports from firms offering them. The candidates who took this plea to heed have gained back up from the ECU. The ECU has taken to its responsibility to urge citizens to make contributions to support the candidates who have rejected corporate support and cannot manage to finance their campaign on their own.

In this year’s elections, the group has shown their support of Senator Cory Booker in the race for the state senatorial race. This is after the senator rejected corporate donations towards his campaigns. Senator Cory is however not the only politicians who have denounced the financial contributions. The list of politicians who have decided to exhibit political transparency is continuing to grow.

The corporate donations into politics have become a significant threat to the states political growth and stability. This is after the Supreme Court gave a ruling that permitted the financial support of politicians by big corporative and billionaires.

Democrat Conor Lambs released an ad supporting his campaign. He is contending as a candidate for the special elections for the 18th Congregational District. In his announcement, he focused more on giving his voters reasons to elect him rather than smearing dirt on his opponent’s reputation. He has used his personal experiences to convince his voters. In the ad, he also shows the immense support he has received from the End Citizens United group.

Check more about End Citizens United:

The Real Real: General Information and Recap

This will give information surrounding a company called “The RealReal”. It will open up recapping a blog by Jason Del Rey called “The RealReal- the fashion site that sells secondhand Gucci and Louis Vuitton- wants to raise a new $100 million investment”. Then general information will be provided. Julie Wainwright who is the CEO for the company “The RealReal” has made a proclamation that the next round for private financing for hers would be the last one before an IPO would occur.

Wainright, who is responsible for establishing this site of luxury which is known for selling clothing that’s second hand. Examples are “Louis Vuitton” and “Gucci”. This company already had brought out over $170 million since it had begun seven years before. This company has been working under a model of shipment. This is where seller deliver out goods to the company. After that, the company will sell an item and then share the proceeds given from that item. They will share with a person an amount often around a percent of fifty to sixty. The site had originally begun with a focus of luxury fashion of women that has been branching out into the products of home décor, watches, jewelry, art, and menswear as well. It also has location of brick-and-mortar in New York City with probably more to come as well. This particular company is one of a couple of online businesses that are venture-backed in the sector of fashion resale. To go along, they still have the attempt to try and stand to be carving off fragments of the businesses while furthering it.

Now,general information about “The Real Real”. This company is based in San Francisco, California. It has been out for a little more than six years. It has focused on creating genuine and resale items that are high-end for the home, as well as men and women. Also, this company has given jobs to over 800 people. Also, in the last several months the company has opened up six valuation offices in locations like Washington, D.C., Chicago, L.A, San Francisco, and New York.

Mike Baur & Swiss Startup Factory

The Career Background & History of Mike Baur

In business, there is no getting around the fact that it is one of the most laborious and demanding industries to work in. When we take into consideration factors such as time, money, and overall sacrifice that it takes out of individuals to just get into this field, it is easy to see why many fail out of the filed before they can find success. As unbelievable as that sounds, it is definitely the truth. Having said that, there have been plenty of successful businessman and entrepreneurs over the course of time. Needless to say, these professionals have earned every bit of the success that they receive as business experts and professionals. Despite this fact, perhaps no other successful individual from this industry has been as impactful and as influential as Mike Baur has been in his career. In other words, the career that Mike Baur has created for himself can be described as illustrious, to say the least. In addition to this, considering the years of experience to his credit, there isn’t much that he has left on the table in terms of career accomplishments. In reality, Mike Baur is seen as the pinnacle of excellence in the entire business field. To further get this point across, Mike Baur has set the bar on what it takes to succeed in business. So, to further understand how he has managed to become so successful at what he does, here is more on the Mike Baur and his current state as a professional.


More on Mike Baur & Current State

Worth mentioning again, Mike Baur is as accomplished as it gets as a business professional. Simply put, Mike Baur is a true master of his craft. However, with the many accolades and accomplishments that he has to his name, perhaps none have been as recognized as his efforts from the Swiss Startup Factory. As founder of this company, which is one of the best banking systems in the world, has benefited so many people with their financial and banking situations. Not only have his contributions to this company benefit others but, he has also benefited himself from the company’s overall success. If this does not show how effective Mike Baur is at what he does, who knows what else will? All in all, there is no denying that Mike Baur will continue to succeed as he always has.


Alexandre Gama More Than Just an Advertising Executive

     Alexandre Gama founded the advertising firm that bears his name, Neogama, in 1999. In the nearly 20 years since the firm and Gama himself have won numerous awards. The recognition has made Neogama one of the top advertising agencies in Brazil and recognized worldwide for their outstanding work. The awards are endless and include 23 Golden Lion awards from the Cannes Film Festival.

Gama is not just a creative mind but also an avid entrepreneur. He has holdings in several technology and automotive companies including a controlling stake in Briggs Automotive. The British automaker manufactures luxury sports cars. Gama also believes in paying it forward, sponsoring a Brazilian student each year who shows interest and skill in advertising.

Graham Edwards Leads Telereal Trillium Limited into Excellent Property Development and Management

Without a doubt, a competent property manager can add value to an investor’s resources. In commercial real estate primarily, a dedicated property manager like Telereal Trillium Limited, a leading property manager with its main offices in London will guide you through the right path of investment. As a good management company, Telereal Trillium Limited thrives on good leadership and management.


Background Data

Telereal Trillium Limited has seen millions of applications from different clients. That is why the company has known how to maneuver around the real facts behind the investors and evaluate the warning signs. For those who have invested in real estate and property development through Telereal Trillium Limited, it becomes easier to deal with the management because the company does comprehensive screening before allowing investors to delve into a particular business.


Graham Edwards

Behind the management of the company are qualified executive directors and a veteran who is eligible to analyze relevant investment information and channel it to the right investment managers. Graham Edwards is the head cheerleader of Telereal Trillium Limited. From his first day of the appointment, he worked hard to ensure that the company provides excellent property development management services.


Leadership Roles

Graham Edwards has chaired property development projects at Telereal Trillium Limited with the most memorable being the development of a strategic property called British Telecommunications. The contract has since seen this company developing into an excellent fledging company.



The projects Graham Edwards has chaired have influenced the culture of the company in several ways including establishing a culture that has attracted several growth partnerships. The deals he has established have so far contributed to the expansion of property development in the company.



Since 2001, Graham Edwards Telereals has pushed the company into billions of transactions with his primary focus on real estate development. Before he joined Telereal Trillium Limited, he worked at Talisman and Merrill Lynch Investment Management. Edwards also held a senior position as a top hedge fund manager.


Additional Information

In addition to the stated roles above, Mr. Edwards is the director of two major companies; Flagstaff 1 Ltd as well as Antham 1 Ltd. Being a visionary leader, he has extended his services into England’s Institute of Chartered Accounts and the Association of Corporate Treasurers. He also holds an executive position at the United Kingdom Society of Investment Professionals.



Conclusively, Graham Edwards is an alumnus of the Cambridge University. He studied economics and has since used his academic credentials to pave the way for young professionals who aspire to join the industry of property development and management.


Richard Dwayne Blair is providing financial planning solutions for his clients.

Richard Dwayne Blair is providing financial planning solutions for his clients.


Richard Dwayne Blair comes from a family of scholars and is proof of how teaching could influence the life of a person positively. His wife is a teacher, his grandmother and mother were also teachers. After completing his college education, he ventured into the industry of financial services in 1993. He is the founder of Wealth Solutions that is based in Austin, Texas. The main objective of the organization is impacting positively on the financial matters of small business owners, families and individuals. Richard Blair has a sound knowledge and experience in the field of retirement planning. Richard Dwayne Blair helps his clients through the process of planning and living through retirement. He has the passion for assisting clients to pursue and reach their retirement goals. In his independent firm, Wealth Solutions he has developed as a three-pillar approach to financial planning. The first pillar of financial planning entails Richard helping the client to understand their financial roadmap. Here is where the client has to point out their strengths, goals, risk tolerance and their window for growth. In this period, Richard Blair builds a valued relationship as he intimately understands the client’s concerns, fears, and expectations. The second pillar for financial planning is drafting a financial investment strategy that is long term. This step is customized to meet the specific needs of the clients in the aspects of their liquidity needs and goals. Richard Blair has designed this process to maximize the output of the client’s assets and investment during the high market season. As a result, it would reduce the impact of the low market seasons on the portfolio of the clients. The track record for performance is based on the goals, expectations and historical data for the client. Richard Dwayne Blair has based his third pillar for financial planning on the insurance needs of his client. Life is a rollercoaster full of uncertainties. Richard Blair focuses on making sure that his clients have adequate coverage for insurance. In his process, he comes up with strategies for long-term care insurance, annuities, and life insurance.


Who is Jed McCaleb?

Jed McCaleb, put simply is a co-founder of Stellar, a developmental foundation which promotes global financial access, literacy, and inclusion through providing access to low-cost financial services through the development of technology as well as networking relations which turn into partnerships. In looking at an article on McCaleb, concerning his prediction for bitcoin in banking, we can learn of his stance on the trends coming ahead in relation to how the cryptocurrency will change global payments, as well as fundraising, and various stock markets. In the past McCaleb has been known for his creation of the Mt. Gox bitcoin exchange. Today he is the C.T.O. at Stellar, the company which he also co-founded. According to an post, at Stellar, McCaleb works to develop a cryptocurrency network for international, boundary crossing payments. The article goes on to talk of how McCaleb believes that in the coming years the technology, or blockchain behind bitcoin will become increasingly widespread in use. His vision is a universal payment network, which encompasses a public ledger to streamline transaction settlement times. The company Stellar, at which he is the C.T.O., is currently working to bring this vision into reality with transaction times advertised at 5 seconds or less. In addition to this feature, the Stellar network, due to its streamlined transaction times is able to allow users to exchange government-backed currencies such as the U.S. dollar, and the euro, at a quick rate.

In taking a closer look at the life of Jed McCaleb through his website, we can see that he is passionate about reforming the world’s financial infrastructure, as he feels as though too many people are left without resources. We go on to learn that he co-founded Stellar with a man named Joyce Kim, whom which he tasked out to solve this financial infrastructure problem. McCaleb, as mentioned in his LinkedIn profile, is a knowledgeable individual when it comes to computer science, as well as finance. He was the founder of eDonkey2000, a peer to peer file sharing network which was one of the first of its kind. His network went on to become the first which offered multi-source downloading, as well as Kademlia DHT, a distributed hash table for decentralized peer to peer transactions.

More information about McCaleb can be read here:

Academy of Art University alumnus unites art and heart together in Oscar-winning animated film “Coco.”

For the first time, filmmakers unconnected to the industry of animated films were able to vote on the merits of movies with animation, and “Coco” won the Oscar for Best Animated Film. Among those honored for this film was character designer Daniel Arriaga of Pixar Animation Studios.


“Coco” is impressive for its artistry and authenticity. In his characterizations, Arriaga drew upon skills attained at the Academy of Art in San Francisco, California. Founded in 1929 by artist Richard S. Stephens, the Academy expanded its curriculum after World War II to include Commercial Art and Advertising, Fashion Illustration, Lettering and Layout, and Cartooning. In 1951, when Stephens’s son, Richard A. Stephens, became the director, enrollment increased, and a transportation design department was added. Since 1966, the Academy has offered a Bachelor’s Degree in Fine Art.


The Academy of Art’s alumnus, Daniel Arriaga, drew upon his cultural background for authenticity in the characters of “Coco.” The main character, a Mexican boy named Miguel, wants to be a guitarist and singer, but his father forbids him. Aware of some mystery surrounding a dead relative named Ernesto de la Cruz, a singer and movie star, Miguel seeks more knowledge about Cruz and the family secret by traveling to the Land of the Dead. Employing his knowledge of Mexican celebrations, Arriaga has Miguel search for his relative during El Día de Los Muertos (the Day of the Dead), the commemoration of lost relatives on November 2. Because it is customary to visit the graves of dead relatives, Miguel tries to contact Ernesto in the graveyard. Somehow Miguel falls into the after-life where he must obtain a blessing from his ancestors so he can return to the living and fulfill his destiny. With the authenticity of Miguel’s search for Ernesto and skilled animation, Arriaga creates an intriguing character in Miguel.


On a return to his alma mater of San Francisco’s Academy of Art University to talk with “the visionaries of tomorrow,” Arriaga discussed the laborious, but gratifying, process of bringing “Coco” to its successful completion. As they listened, students began to feel hopeful and confident of the opportunities available in the academic, artistic, and professional environment of Academy of Art University.


Find out more about Academy of Art University: